ACADEMIC CURRICULUM/ COURSE CONTENTS

Location of Dept. and Class of Degree
The Department of Mass Communication, Paul University, Awka was established during the 2016/2017 academic session. It is domicile in the Faculty of Social Sciences as recommended by the National Universities Commission (NUC). The Department awards Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) degree to successful candidates after the completion of a four year programme. The programme is designed to blend theoretical knowledge and practical experience to promote professionalism and excellence in Mass Communication training, research and practice.

Nature and Duration of Programme
The Department admits undergraduate students through the University Matriculation Examination (UME) for a four year programme and direct entry students for a three year programme leading to the award of the B.Sc degree in Mass Communication. Students are encouraged to register as student members of cognate professional associations after their second year of study in the university.

They are also encouraged to take the relevant professional examinations of the Nigerian Institute of Public Relations (NIPR) and the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON) at the end of their third year of study in the University.

Philosophy, Aims and Objectives
In realization of the relevance of communication in every society, the programme is designed to produce highly skilled professionals who will contribute meaningfully to the information super highway in Nigeria, Africa and the world. It is established as a model for the provision of quantitative and qualitative professional training with a view to equipping the undergraduates with necessary knowledge and skills needed to face the challenges of contemporary society. The course of study is further designed to ensure that general and specialized education are offered in broadcasting, print journalism, public relations and advertising, persuasive political communication, development communication and other emerging fields in communication education such as the online media.

It is expected that graduates from the Department will excel in both private and public sectors of the economy and assist tremendously in elevating professional practice in Mass Communication. The programme also provides the students with the requisite skills and competence to be gainfully self-employed in journalism and related fields of human endeavours and prepares them to undertake a more detailed but specialized postgraduate studies in Mass Communication, its specialized areas or related fields. Above all, the programme is designed in such a way that the students are not only taught communication skills but are morally prepared to lead exemplary life wherever they find themselves.

Admission Requirements
Students are admitted into the programme in accordance with the guidelines as established by relevant regulatory bodies. These include the following:

a. UME Admission Requirements: Candidates who have a minimum of five (5) credit at the GCE (O’Level), SSCE Examination or their equivalent with credit level pass in English Language, English Literature and Mathematics shall be considered for admission. The candidates shall have the required number of credits at not more than two sittings.

b. Direct Entry Requirements: Also to be considered are direct entry students who may have obtained a minimum of OND or A’Level Certificates in Mass Communication (Lower Credit minimum) from examination bodies or institutions recognized by Paul University, Awka. The candidate should also possess the departmental O’Level entry requirement.

c. Inter-University Transfer: A student who is already studying Mass Communication in any other university recognized by the Senate of Paul University and is in good academic standing can transfer into the appropriate level of study in the Department of Mass Communication of Paul University provided the applicant is able to present authentic transcript with a minimum of 2.5 CGPA on a five point scale in addition of not having a reference in any course previously studied. Transfer will however not be allowed into the 4th year.

These applicants must also satisfy the Joint Admission and Regulation Board (JAMB) minimum requirements for admission though UME as established from time to time.

Formal Studies in the Department
Formal study in the department lasts for four academic years (8 semesters) for UME students and three academic years (6 semesters) for direct entry students. The students are to embark on Industrial Training (IT) after their second and third years in the university. The IT programmes are long vacation-oriented and documented through the training logbook approach. The details of the programmes:

1. The academic training lasts for eight (8) semesters across four years. The practical training takes four (4) calendar months split into two (2) months each immediately after the second and third year of study. The practical training offers the students the opportunity to come to terms with the realities in the industry and exposes them to the required professional experience from practitioners in the industry.

2. At the end of the second semester of the second and third years, the students are expected to embark on industrial training in any mass medium, Public Relations, advert agencies or allied establishments of their choice. They are expected to submit audio and video, newspaper cuttings or any other evidence as a proof of their active participation in the industrial training. At the end of each IT programme, students are expected to write a report of their experience which will be submitted with the logbook, newspaper cuttings and the audio or video tapes, as the case may be, for evaluation.

3. The students are required to write and present well researched seminar papers at the fourth year of the programme to demonstrate their depth knowledge of contemporary issues and trends in specialized areas of Mass Communication education, research and practice.

4. Finally, the programme terminates with a research project to be written and defended by each student before an External Examiner and the Departmental academic board.

Curriculum including Course Numbers and Codes
Each course offered in the department is represented by a Course Code and Course Title. The abbreviation ‘MAC’ represents core Mass Communication courses and begins each course code. It is followed by a three-digit number as part of the course code. The numbers are as follows:

 The first digit in each code indicates the year or level each course is to be taught. Example, one (1) for first year courses, two (2) for second year courses, three (3) for third year courses and four (4) for fourth year courses.

 The middle or second digit represents the subject stress area. (See the categorization as listed below).

Stress Areas                                                                    Code
Introduction/General course                                            0
Print Journalism                                                                 1
Film                                                                                       2
Broadcasting                                                                       3
Public Relations                                                                  4
Advertising                                                                          5
General (Cross) Media Studies                                        6
Industrial Training                                                              7
Research                                                                             8

  •  The third or last digit indicates the semester in which the course is offered. Odd numbers represent first semester courses while even numbers represent second semester courses

Approved Academic Courses
Academic Training:
The courses prescribed and approved by the University for the training of students in Mass Communication department are as follow:

DESCRIPTION AND WORKLOAD
Practical Training:
The practical training offers the students an opportunity to experience performance activities in prototype establishments relevant to their course of study. The courses, MAC 272 and MAC 372 expose them to the required professional experience expected from workers in the mass media institutions. Practical training is indicated in the approved courses as Industrial Training (IT). It lasts for a total of four (4) months spanning through two academic sessions (two months each) during holiday periods from the second to the third year of study. The major thrust shall be:

Industrial Attachment I (MAC 272) – 2 credits
Industrial Attachment II (MAC 372) – 2 credits
Total – 4 credits

Academic Training:
The comprehensive details of approved courses are contained in this document. Each student in the Department of Mass Communication is required to earn Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) degree on the completion of the following:

1. ———- credit in General Studies
2. ———– credits in computer sciences studies
3. .———– credits in Ancillary Courses
4. 4 credits in Industrial Training
5. ………. credits in core mass communication courses
6. ———- total credit for the B.Sc degree in Mass Communication

Students are therefore, expected to complete a total of —– credits of academic work to qualify for the award of the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc) degree in Mass Communication at Paul University, Awka.

Course Description
MAC 101: Introduction to Mass Communication I
Introduction to Mass Communication I is the first course where the students are introduced to some of the basic concepts in Mass Communication. It starts with communication as a concept, types of communication, the definition of Mass Communication, the characteristics of Mass Communication and the difference between Mass Communication and other forms of communication. Further emphasis should be on the communication process, models, verbal and non-verbal communication, fidelity of communication and the credibility of messages; gate-keeping, feedback, communication noise, frame of reference, formal and informal communication etc.

MAC 102: Introduction to Mass Communication II
MAC 102 is a continuation of MAC 101. It starts with the media of Mass Communication and an examination of the characteristics, functions, contents, operations and impact of the different mass media: the basic characteristics and functions of the mass media such as information, education, entertainment, persuasion, mobilization, integration etc, and the mass media as an agent of development. Also to be discussed are: the social media and other issues such as the global village phenomenon, fourth estate of the realm, marketplace of ideas, New World Information and Communication Order, media convergence etc. Students will also be introduced to the four theories of the press and other basic communication theories, freedom of information and expression, news agencies and media regulatory bodies.

MAC 111 & 112: Writing for the Mass Media 1 & 2
This is an introductory writing course in mass communication and taken during the first and second semesters of the first year. In the two courses, students are introduced to the characteristics of the various mass media format and why they need a different writing style (journalistic styles). The essence is to show the requirements of each medium in the shaping of information content and style of presentation. This is a practical course where writing assignments are given to acquaint the students with the expectation of the various mass media – radio, television, newspapers, magazines and even the online media. Emphasis is also paid to grammar and use of language.

MAC 163: History of the Nigerian Mass Media
The mass media in Nigeria have a very rich history starting from the early newspapers which were used to propagate religious beliefs to the politics-conscious newspapers. This course traces the major trends in the development of the mass media in Nigeria and the transformation; as well as their adaptation and contribution to the political, religious, economic and social development from 1959 till the present day.

MAC 165: African Communication System
Communication is as old as mankind. Africans, for instance, before the advent of the media of mass communication have different ways of passing information which then, served the purposes. Even in the present technological age, in different villages, there exist distinct modes of communication that serves the need of the people. This course takes students from the pre-civilization communication process (system) in the African villages to the present communication process in those villages. The course also looks at the transformation or the adaptation of the early communication modes to the present technology driven communication process and vice versa. The emphasis is to acquaint the students with tradition bound/ community driven communication modes in Africa and how those communication modes (signs, symbols and taxonomies) have continued to survive in the face of advanced communication technologies.

MAC 166: Interpersonal Comm. & Relationship Management
Interpersonal communication is arguably the beginning of formal human communication. When it is gotten right at this stage, it helps to build good human relation. If misapplied, it leads to misunderstanding and some other social problems. This course therefore introduces students to the basic skills in and approaches to interpersonal communication. It harps on the development of skill for effective communication with family members, friends, colleagues as well as other persons or groups and individual interacts with in his/her daily activities. Specifically, the course is based on the study of communication theory as applied to a variety of interpersonal situations and social interactions. The main trust of the course is to expose the students to various dimensions of interpersonal communication/ relationships with emphasis on the need for interpersonal relationship; self disclosure, non-verbal cues, persuasion, effective listening and understanding; forms of relationships as well as organizational communication.

MAC 201: Theories of Mass Communication
This course explores and analyses major theories which deal with the nature, uses and effect of mass communication. These include the normative theories and other theories that influence the study of Mass Communication. The relationship between theory and research and the relevance of the latter to the success of the former are to be discussed.

MAC 211: Features and Magazine Article Writing
The course dwells on the writing, analyzing and presentation of feature articles for newspapers and magazines. It introduces students to investigative writing (reporting) and the techniques involved in such writings. It makes special reference to research and other fact gathering processes. Different types of feature articles, investigation of editorial needs, ethical and legal problems, manuscripts preparation, and rules that govern all forms of features and article writing are to be discussed.

MAC 213: Editorial Writing
Editorial is a common feature of newspapers and often gives voice and character to the newspapers. The course discusses the meaning of editorials and the difference between editorial, editorial matters, editorial page and commentary. It discusses the definition and structure of the editorial; i.e. introduction, body and conclusion; and the types of editorial. Comparison of the structure of an editorial with those of other kinds of journalistic writings such as straight news, features, interviews etc. The role of persuasion in commentaries and editorials. Distinction between persuasive editorial and other forms e.g. expository, narrative, argumentative, informative etc. Functions of an editorial. Distinction between an editorial as opinion expression and non-opinion type journalistic writing. Evaluation of the impact of editorials. Various approaches to editorial writing e.g. satire, subjective, objective etc.

MAC 215: News Writing and Beat Reporting
This is a practical course designed to enable students to become proficient in preparing publishable copy under deadline and develop news writing skills and the nose for news. Students are assigned beats, especially on campus and the neighbourhood. They report and develop stories for the departmental publications. They are also encouraged to submit outstanding articles for publication in other mass media.

MAC 221: Introduction to Film, Cinema and Literature
This course examines film as a medium of communication and the cinema as a communication setting with particular reference to literature and its various forms – the short story, novel, poem and drama. Overview of the kinds of films – documentary (non-fiction), and the role of the cinema in urban and rural communities.

MAC 232: Radio/TV Programme Writing and Production
This examines the elements and activities of the writing process in both radio and television, with special attention to the nature of their audience and scripting. Special focus should be on the writing and production format of different radio/TV programmes such as live broadcasts, talks, spot announcements, eye¬witness account and magazine programmes.

MAC 251: Introduction to Advertising
General review of the fundamental principles and tenets of the advertising discipline. Definition/nature, history and types of advertising. Advertising appeal and techniques. Role of advertising in society. Evaluation of the advertising profession and types of advertising agencies.

MAC 212: Introduction to Publishing Sequence
It takes a look at the publishing process and the industry activities. Examines book publishing as a cultural activity, and as a business; the environment of book publishing and book publishing as a mass industry.

MAC214: Editing and Graphics of Communication
Focus should be on how to write and edit copy in a style appropriate to the news media. Also, emphasis is placed on the preparation of articles and photographs (photo-editing) for newspapers and magazines. Editing and proof-reading symbols will be discussed. The importance of graphics in communication. Designing captions for television production and type faces. Different types of layout and designs. Preparation of copy and photographs for newspapers and magazines. Students should also be exposed to media, aesthetics as well as colour psychology and harmony.

MAC 216: Critical Writing and Review
The nature of criticism and the role of critical writings in mass communication. Types of reviews. Theory and practice of reviewing the lively arts for both the print and electronic media. Practical work in review of novels, plays, movies, radio/television programmes, music, paintings, sculpture and other creative productions. Analysis of the literary/review pages of selected Nigerian newspapers and magazines, television and radio programmes.

MAC 231: Introduction to Broadcasting
An overview of the physical, technical and societal bases of radio and television broadcasting. Understanding of the laws of nature that make broadcasting possible as wen as the scientists who exploited them. Understanding of the principles of wave propagation. Description of the individual items and equipments used in radio and television. Survey of the diverse environment of broadcasting stations and networks.

MAC 242: Principles of Public Relations
The definition, concepts, theories and practices of public relations and public affairs. The evolution of public relations globally and in Nigeria. Scope and functions of public relations. Relationship between public relations and related disciplines. The importance of public relations in either profit or non¬profit organizations. Public relations research, models of public relations.

MAC 282: Foundation of Communication Research
The primary aim of the course is to expose the students to the basics of social science research with emphasis on communication research. Emphasis is therefore placed on the meaning and nature of social science research; methods of knowing; features of social science research; types of social science research; basic terms associated with social science research (population, samples, sampling method, hypothesis, scope or delimitation of study etc); research methods and levels of measurement. The course is therefore designed to serve as a prelude to advanced communication research.

MAC 264: Foreign Correspondence
The course emphasizes the need for the development of a press corps to survey the international scene for the country. It teaches the students, discusses the politics and economics of foreign correspondence and teaches the skills that will enable the reporter function effectively as a foreign correspondent. It discusses the problems, dynamics and qualities for such function.

MAC 272: Industrial Training (IT)
Students understudy the operations of any media organization, advert agency or public relations outfit under careful monitored arrangement between the Department and those organizations. At the end of the attachment, students then give comprehensive accounts of their experience in written report for evaluation by the Department.

MAC 301: International Communication
Students are to be introduced to international news flow and the New World Information and Communication Order debate (NWICO). Also to be looked at is the establishment of news agencies and their contribution to international news flow. Overview of the world’s press system with emphasis on the unidirectional flow of information between the industrialized and Third World nations. Examination of how ideology, culture, economy and how international market have all contributed either in hindering or advancing international flow of news among nations. The scope, characteristics, peculiarities and current issues in international communication should be exhaustively treated so as to acquaint the students with a thorough knowledge of the policies and manipulative nature of international communication.

MAC 311: Newspaper & Magazine Production and Management
The course introduces students to the various stages in the newspaper and magazine production right from news gathering to editing till the paper goes to bed; then the circulation and the challenges. It starts with the classification of newspapers and magazines, and then the basic editorial issues in newspaper and magazine production such as the mission statement, editorial policies, house style and editorials. Also to be discussed are the newsroom personnel, departments and copy flow, organizational chart and gate-keeping. Also to be discussed are the use of photographs and cartoons in newspaper and magazine production and the legal and ethical issues in newspaper and magazine management and production, Others are newspaper and magazine editing and page makeup and newspaper and magazine circulation. The course will end with the challenges newspapers and magazines face in the business especially the challenge of the online media. Students should produce the departmental training newspaper and magazine to gain practical experience in every stage of the production process – from reporting through editing to circulation.

MAC 341: Community and Industrial Relations
The course examines current trends in both community and industrial relations: principles, strategies and challenges as essential elements in public relations practice. It also uses case studies to demonstrate how to cope with crisis situation which may arise in the absence of industrial harmony or community opposition to an organization. Also to be looked at are how organizations using different community and industrial relations approaches such as Corporate Social Responsibility, effective corporate communication and welfare policies could ensure industrial harmony.

MAC 315: Photojournalism
Students should be made to understand the relevance of photographs as communication tool. Anatomy of the camera and its manipulation to achieve the desired effect or the photograph that will tell the story. A comparative analysis of reporting with the camera and reporting with notebook. Photo processing methods, the evolution from still to digital camera and their production processes. Legal and ethical considerations in photojournalism Photo-editing and photo-manipulation. The relevance of photographs in the print media.

MAC 331: Broadcast Media Programming & Management
Analysis of the nature and process of management in organizations generally with particular reference to broadcast organizations and their settings. Consideration of the primary operations of radio and television stations networks, particularly, programming and personnel and the skills required to manage them in the interest of society. It also involves programme planning/schedule, traffic control, personnel management, planning and directing of special outside broadcast and transmission of live programmes.

MAC 353: Advertising Creative Strategy and Tactics
The course will place emphasis on the theory and practice of writing effective advertising message for print and electronic media. Not to be left out are the creative application of consumer and market surveys, copy testing methods and advertising readership studies. Also, the students will be taught various advert tactics and strategies like product positioning, the Unique Selling Point (USP), target audience description, message appeal strategies, creative brief and execution, message arguments and various models of advert execution (AIDA, FCB model, social marketing concept etc).

MAC 361: Media and Society
The course aims at exploring the factors in the media that influence the society as well as the societal factors (culture, political system, economic ideology technological advancements and literacy level) that influence media structure content and operation in society. It looks at the mass media of communication as a social institution with particular reference to pertinent sociological concepts, theories, themes and problems. Role and relationship of the mass media vis-a-vis major social institutions. Focus on the sociology of mass media contents and the issue of cultural imperialism and media dependency. The course should also introduce students to issues relating to the rights of vulnerable groups especially the right of children in the society and how the media should be used to promote and sustain these rights.

MAC 366: Gender and Intercultural Communication
The course introduces students to gender issues in Mass Communication. These include sexism, gender stereotypes, feminism and feminist movements, gender media theories and sexist languages. It discusses how media practitioners should use their profession to promote gender equity and how tradition, culture, law, politics and the religion of a society affects the gender construct. The course will also discuss how sexism and gender constructs affects media practitioners not only in their places of work, but the media content. It discusses gender as a biological and social construct.

MAC 316: Rural Community Newspaper
Writing, editing and publishing weekly or regular newspaper for the rural community, small municipalities and urban neighborhood. Content analysis, readership research, business and management procedures of such publication. The role of such publication in national development especially in mobilizing the rural dwellers.

MAC 322: Screen Directing and Production
The course introduces the students to the adaptation of the performing arts to screen production, like for television and films. It deals with the conceptual and interpretative artists and their contributions towards the synergy known as screen events. It reviews the roles and functions of the producer and director in the realization of films. It deals with ideas, plots, characterization, language and formats in screen production. Also subjective and objective considerations in screen programme productions are emphasized.

MAC 324: Film Theory, Aesthetics and Production
Exploration of film as extension of photography. Systematic consideration of the basic aesthetic principle, photographic approach, affinities and art. Analysis of the properties of the film medium with regard to the realistic tendency and formative tendency, or realism (as exemplified by the Lumier Brothers) and expressionism (as exemplified by Melie), and the clashes/compromises between both. The issue of film/cinema as an art.

MAC 334: Public Affairs Broadcasting
Critical examination of the structure, internal dynamics and functions of the news and current/public affairs division of broadcasting organizations. Interpretative reporting of government and public institutions and agencies and production of current public affairs discussions, news magazines and documentaries.

MAC 342: Media and Employee Relations
The media are one of the most important publics of an organization since the organization uses the media to reach other publics. The same could be said of the employees who despite producing the product or services are the foot soldiers and, most of the time, the first point of contact between an organization and the various visitors. In view of this, various organizations try to maintain a good rapport with the two groups. This course introduces students to the need for a good media and industrial relations and the various approaches to achieve that.

MAC 344: Financial Public Relations
The students are taught the meaning of Financial Public Relations (FPR) as distinct from the general public relations practice. Also to be taught are the reasons for the growth of FPR, basic concepts and terminologies in FPR such as stakeholders, shareholders, corporate image, corporate identity etc. Students are to be exposed to the FPR process, budgets and budgeting in FPR; reporting and financial statement analysis; media selection in FPR and the conflicting role of the media and FPR managers. A comprehensive review of techniques for planning, budgeting, designing, writing and distribution of corporate publications. A firm knowledge of the functions of the money and capital markets, the Nigerian Stock Exchange Securities and Exchange Commission and the regulations; the organization of special events such as AGMs, board meetings etc. The concept of financial publics etc.

MAC 362: Media Economics
The mass media as an enterprise shall form the focus of the course. Micro and macro economic theories and management techniques shall be discussed as they relate to the establishment. Viability and prosperity of the mass media. It is an analytical course designed to stimulate students’ interest in media ownership and investments. It also discusses the double role of the media in the society – as a social institution (watchdog of the society) and as a business enterprise.

MAC 368: Issues in Faith Communication
The course is aimed at exposing the students to some of the topical religious issues in different parts of the world and how media reportage either helped to douse the tension or escalated it. It lays emphasis on how the media should help to contain ethno-religious crises.

MAC 372: Industrial Training (IT)
The students again understudy the operations of a particular media organization, public relations or advert outfit at the end of their second semester of the third year of study. This is done under a careful monitored arrangement between the Department and that organization. At the end, the students submit a comprehensive account of their experience in a written report to be assessed by the Department.

MAC 384: Advert and Public Relations Research
Exploration of the importance of research in advertising and public relations practices. Examination of the various methods, steps and techniques involved in conducting PR and advertising research. Investigation of the problems associated with marketing research. Indepth analysis of the trends and prospects of advertising and public relations research in Nigeria as well as PRAD research methods.

MAC 401: Mass Media Law and Ethics
Study of the legal framework and ethical standard within which the mass media practice shall be discussed. Students should also be introduced to the development and constitutional growth of the freedom of expression; the Freedom of Information Act, the protection of news source etc. The law of defamation, libel, slander, copyright, privacy, contempt, sedition, registration and licensing, official secret Act; petitions, redresses, and press councils. Also to be discussed are the ethical and moral issues and theories as they affect standards, codes, professionalism and the mechanism for maintaining ethical standard in mass communication. They include the meaning of ethics and different approaches to ethical decisions, sources of ethical standards and ethical dilemmas confronting journalists. Students should also be introduced to different laws and international conventions relating to child rights including their ratification and adoption in Nigeria, and domestication in different states of the federation.

MAC 421: Film Production & Criticism
The course prepares the students for a career prospect in the booming film industry. Also is a critical analysis and evaluation of popular home videos, features films based on their cinematographic principles and criteria such as plot, characterization, special effects, sound, lighting and thematic appeal. The course should also look at the portrayal of children in home movies via-a-vis their rights as minors and the need to use the industry to promote and protect these rights.

MAC 461: Green/Environmental Communication
The course harps on how environmental challenges should be managed through the mass media to achieve a green environment. The course explains concepts, strategies and perspective of communications designed to achieve a friendly environment; preserve and conserve nature, maintain order in the ecosystem, biodiversity and ensures an environmentally friendly and sustainable society. It explores the role of communication in ensuring environmental friendliness etc. Some of the environmental challenges are: flooding; air, water and land pollution, natural and man made ecological hazards, the climate change etc.

MAC 433: Educational Broadcasting
Assessment of the educational potentialities and limitations of the mass media especially radio and television. Evaluation of pedagogic approaches and production techniques; radio forums and clubs. Planning and production of educational programmes, production of supplementary materials and teaching aids.

MAC 431: Station Management and Operations
This course dwells on daily management of broadcast stations. This includes programme planning/scheduling, traffic control, personnel management, planning and directing of special outside broadcasts, simulated transmissions of ‘live’ broadcasting etc. The course introduces students to daily activities in broadcast stations and how they are managed to achieve the dream of the station.

MAC 445: Economic and Social Issues in Advert and PR
The study of advertising and public relations as an institution, the laws and ethics governing the professions in Nigeria as compared with developed countries like USA and Britain; self regulation by practitioners and professional associations, consideration of social responsibility, truth and deception, consumerism etc.

MAC 459: Organization and Management of Advert & PR Agencies
Establishment of effective guidelines for starting an enterprise in advertising or public relations. The organization and management of the various departments of a full service agency. Different types of advertising agencies. Differences between in¬ house public relations department and consultancy. Role of regulatory bodies in advertising and public relations practice.

MAC 481: Data Analysis in Communication Research
The course reviews the different data analysis techniques used in communication research; their basic peculiarities and challenges. It looks at different research designs and the appropriate method of analysis. Survey designs, content analysis and data coding. Presentation of data and its analysis form the crux of the course. Measures of variability, charts and graphs, as well as how to interpret research data in communication will be taught. The course is designed to keep the students abreast with scientific analyses of communication problems in the society.

MAC 402: Development Communication
The course takes special interest in the understanding of the role of mass communication in national development. It ensures an extensive coverage of the general role of the media in society with special reference to promoting social change and socialization. Students are introduced to different development and communication concepts, theories and models to the process of social development. They are taught the dominant paradigm and the new paradigm of development communication especially in influencing attitudinal change.

MAC 463: Mass Media, Evangelism and Social Harmony
There is a new wave of religious intolerance not only in Nigeria but in different parts of the world. On the contrary, there is an upsurge in the use of the mass media by different religious groups to reach adherents dotted in different part of the world. The course looks at how religious bodies including the government should use the potentials of media evangelism to promote social harmony. It looks at the language of evangelism, the effect of hate speeches etc.

MAC 464: Political Communication
In modern world, politics influences all actions of man in the society. This course takes a holistic look at the meaning of political communication, the role of the mass media in the political process. It looks at the actors in the political process, the political theories of the press and their relevance in modern press government relationship in Nigeria. The media varieties in the communication process, the NBC guide and other regulations in political communication, the function of the media in the political process such as mobilization for active participation in the political process, political education (voter education), political advertising etc. It looks at the fairness and equal time doctrine in political communication, government house correspondents, the role of the media in political conflicts and the implication of news commercialization, brown envelop syndrome in political reporting, coverage of political campaigns and special events.

MAC 438: Rural Community Broadcasting
Analysis of the community needs and problems with regard to the role and qualities of radio and television in these areas. Planning of community development projects for implementation through special radio programmes. Programme production and evaluation research. Qualities of a community broadcast media and their role in informing, educating, entertaining and mobilizing the rural dwellers. An appraisal of community radio broadcast in Nigeria.

MAC 446: International PR and Advertising
Analysis of trends, issues and problems confronting public relations and advertising departments in multinational firms and other organizations involved in international trade and business. The mass media as a vehicle of international public relations and advertising. A study of exportation, importation and adoption of foreign advert and PR programmes and their economic and social consequences. International media of PR and advertising and the advantage and disadvantage of each media. Language, religion and other cultural barrier in international PR and advertizament.

MAC 465: Mass Media, Propaganda and Public Opinion
The course dwells on the synergy that exists among the mass media, propaganda and public opinion in different societies, the meaning and evolution of propaganda and public opinion, the role of propaganda in opinion formation and Public opinion as distinct from mass opinion. Also to be discussed is how books, photographs, cartoons, internet, radio, music etc could be used as tools to propagate ideas, mobilize the people and change or reinforce existing attitudes and opinions. It evaluates the procedure, importance and pitfalls of public opinion polls, role of the mass media in attitudinal change and opinion formation. Students should also be introduced to the different types of propaganda and the propaganda techniques employed by individuals, the media etc to change public opinion and public policy. Also to be discussed is the types, methods and the process of public opinion research.

MAC 412: Issues in Print Journalism (Seminar)
Issues concerning newspapers and magazines in particular will be assigned to students and presented in class as seminar paper. The problems, prospects, establishment and management of the print medium are the focus of the course. This course exposes students to the writing of seminar papers and the presentation before an audience. Issues like brown envelop syndrome, news commercialization, self/institutional censorship, public versus private interest online and citizen’s journalism, Freedom of Information Act, Official Secret Act etc will be assigned to students for presentation in the seminar class.

MAC 432: Issues in Broadcasting (Seminar)
The course reviews issues concerning programmes, their production, distribution, transmission and the management of the broadcast media. The problems and prospects of the broadcast industry including the current deregulation, ownership and control, news commercialization, the brown envelop syndrome, the regulation of the industry etc. The course exposes students to the writing and presentation of seminar papers.

MAC 454: Issues in Advert and Public Relations (Seminar)
This is more or less a seminar class where issues especially topical ones in the advertising and public relations practice/ industry are to be assigned to students. The students discuss these issues and present them in class through a seminar approach. Also, the course exposes students to seminar paper writing and presentation before an audience.

MAC 462: Technological Advances in Communication
The course is designed to expose students to, or update them with, the various aspects of information technology as they feed into or serve as tributaries of mainline communication. The main purpose is to equip candidates for the utilization of the new media in all their ramifications and appreciate the advancement in communication technologies has influenced the present day communication system.

MAC 498: Research Project
The undergraduate programme in mass communication terminates with the successful completion of this course. Students will be required to propose researchable topics either in print journalism, broadcasting, public relations, advertising or any area of mass communication. When approved, the Department assigns a supervisor to the student who guides him/her in the study. At the completion of this research project, the student defends the work before the Departmental academic Board and the External Examiner. The final copy as approved by the Board shall be bound in the approved colour and format and two copies submitted to the Department through the supervisors.

SCORING AND GRADING SYSTEM
The mark obtained in each course is made up of 30 per cent obtained from continuous assessment and class attendance. The remaining 70 per cent is gotten from the end-of-semester examination.

GRADE POINT (GP)
The mark scored in each course (continuous assessment score plus the end-of-semester score) has an equivalent letter grade of A – F and each letter grade has a corresponding numerical value of 5.00 to 0.0 called Grade Point as in the table below.

GRADE POINT AVERAGE (GPA)
The academic performance of a student in any semester shall be measured with the grade point average (GPA). The maximum value is 5.00 and the minimum is 0.00. Grade Point Average (GPA) is the sum of Quality points divided by total credit units for all the courses registered in the semester.

Quality Point (QP), the product of the credit unit and grade point of each course defines the Quality Point for that course.

THE CUMULATIVE GRADE POINT AVERAGE (CGPA)
i. The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is the measure of the student’s overall academic performance at any given period in his programme or at the end of the academic programme.
ii. Cumulative Grade Point Average is normally computed at the end of each semester as an up-to-date weighted mean of the grade points, where the weights are the course credit units.
iii. The Grade Point earned at the end of all semester examinations shall count towards the CGPA (Cumulative Grade Point Average). CGPA = sum of all Quality Points divided by sum of all credit units for all courses registered/repeated so far in the student’s academic programme.
iv. The final Cumulative Grade Point Average calculated at the end of a student’s academic programme shall determine the class of degree he/she shall be awarded. See table below:

GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS
Each student in the Department of Mass Communication shall be academically required to earn a B.Sc degree on completion of the following:

1. (26) credit units in General Studies
2. (4) credit units in Computer Sciences
3. (10) credit units in Ancillary Courses
4. (116) credit units in core Mass Communication Courses